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dc.rights.licenseRestricted to current Rensselaer faculty, staff and students. Access inquiries may be directed to the Rensselaer Libraries.
dc.contributorChakrapani, Vidhya
dc.contributorPlawsky, Joel L., 1957-
dc.contributorShi, Sufei
dc.contributorGall, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorWang, Qi
dc.date.accessioned2021-11-03T08:56:10Z
dc.date.available2021-11-03T08:56:10Z
dc.date.created2018-02-21T14:01:07Z
dc.date.issued2017-12
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/20.500.13015/2125
dc.descriptionDecember 2017
dc.descriptionSchool of Engineering
dc.description.abstractTransition metal oxides (TMOs) constitute a large group of materials that exhibit a wide range of optical, electrical, electrochemical, dielectric and catalytic properties, and thus making them highly regarded as promising materials for a variety of applications in next generation electronic, optoelectronic, catalytic, photonic, energy storage and energy conversion devices. Some of the unique properties of TMOs are their strong electron-electron correlations that exists between the valence electrons of narrow d- or f-shells and their ability to exist in variety of oxidation states. This gives TMOs an enormous range of fascinating electronic and other physical properties. Many of these remarkable properties of TMOs arises from the complex surface charge transfer processes at the oxide surface/electrochemical redox species interface and non-stoichiometry due to the presence of lattice vacancies that may cause significant perturbation to the electronic structure of the material. Stoichiometry, oxidation state of the metal center and lattice vacancy defects all play important roles in affecting the physical properties, electronic structures, device behavior and other functional properties of TMOs. However, the underlying relationships between them is not clearly known. For instance, the exchange of electrons between adsorbates and defects can lead to the passivation of existing defect states or formation of new defects, both of which affect defect equilibria, and consequently, functional properties. In depth understanding of the role of lattice defects on the electrical, catalytic and optical properties of TMOs is central to further expansion of the technological applications of TMO based devices. The focus of this work is to elucidate the interactions of vacancy defects with various electrochemical adsorbates in TMOs.
dc.description.abstractThe ability to directly probe the interactions of vacancy defects with gas and liquid phase species under in-operando conditions is highly desirable to obtain a mechanistic understanding of the charge transfer process. We have developed a spectroscopic technique for studying vacancy defects in TMOs using near-infrared photoluminescence (NIR-PL) spectroscopy and showed that this technique is uniquely suited for studying defect-adsorbate interactions. In this work, a series of studies were carried out to elucidate the underlying structure-defect-property correlations of TMOs and their role in catalyzing electrical and electrochemical properties.
dc.description.abstractIn the second study, main effects of oxygen vacancy defects on the electronic and optical properties of V2O5 nanowires were studied using in-situ Raman, photoluminescence, absorption, and photoemission spectroscopy. We show that both thermal reduction and electrochemical reduction via Li+ insertion results in the creation of oxygen vacancy defects in the crystal that leads to band filling and an increase in the optical band gap of V2O5 from 1.95 eV to 2.45 eV, an effect known as the Burstein-Moss effect.
dc.description.abstractIn the third study, we report a new type of semiconductor-adsorbed water interaction in metal oxides known as “electrochemical surface transfer doping,” a phenomenon that has been previously been observed on hydrogen-terminated diamond, carbon nanotube, gallium nitride and zinc oxide. Most TMOs at room temperature are known to be strongly hydrated. We show that an adsorbed water film present on the surface of TMOs facilitates the dissolution of gaseous species and promotes charge transfers at the adsorbed-water/oxide interfaces. Further, we show the role of vacancy defects in enhancing catalytic processes by directly monitoring the charge transfer process between gaseous species and vacancy defects in non-stoichiometric p-type nickel oxide and n-type tungsten oxide using in-situ NIR-PL, electrical resistance, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We find the importance of adsorbed water and vacancy defects in affecting catalytic, electronic, electrical, and optical changes such as insulator-to-metal transitions and radiative emissions during electrochemical reactions. In addition, we demonstrate that electrochemical surface transfer doping exists in another system, specifically, in gallium nitride, and the presence of this adsorbed water film present on the surface of GaN induces electron transfer from GaN that leads to the formation of an electron depletion region on the surface.
dc.description.abstractIn the first study, we report a new type of electrical phase transition in p-type, non-stoichiometric nickel oxide involving a semiconductor-to-insulator-to-metal transition along with the complete change of conductivity from p- to n-type at room temperature induced by electrochemical Li+ intercalation. Direct observation of vacancy-ion interactions using in-situ NIR-PL show that the transition is a result of passivation of native nickel (cationic) vacancy defects and subsequent formation of oxygen (anionic) vacancy defects driven by Li+ insertion into the lattice. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy studies performed to examine the changes in the oxidation states of nickel due to defect interactions support the above conclusions.
dc.language.isoENG
dc.publisherRensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY
dc.relation.ispartofRensselaer Theses and Dissertations Online Collection
dc.subjectChemical engineering
dc.titleRole of defects and adsorbed water film in influencing the electrical, optical and catalytic properties of transition metal oxides
dc.typeElectronic thesis
dc.typeThesis
dc.digitool.pid178789
dc.digitool.pid178790
dc.digitool.pid178791
dc.rights.holderThis electronic version is a licensed copy owned by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY. Copyright of original work retained by author.
dc.description.degreePhD
dc.relation.departmentDept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering


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