Biology; Chemistry and chemical biology; Chemical and biological engineering; Biomedical engineering
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Characterization of heparin and severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike glycoprotein binding interactions, S.-Y. Kim, W. Jin, A. Sood, D. W. Montgomery, O. C. Grant, M. M. Fuster, L. Fu, J. S. Dordick, R. J. Woods, F. Zhang, R. J. Linhardt, Antiviral Research, 181, 104873, 2020.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a pandemic and continues to spread around the globe at an unprecedented rate. To date, no effective therapeutic is available to fight its associated disease, COVID-19. Our discovery of a novel insertion of glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-binding motif at S1/S2 proteolytic cleavage site (681–686 (PRRARS)) and two other GAG-binding-like motifs within SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (SGP) led us to hypothesize that host cell surface GAGs may interact SARS-CoV-2 SGPs to facilitate host cell entry. Using a surface plasmon resonance direct binding assay, we found that both monomeric and trimeric SARS-CoV-2 SGP bind more tightly to immobilized heparin (KD = 40 pM and 73 pM, respectively) than the SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV SGPs (500 nM and 1 nM, respectively). In competitive binding studies, the IC50 of heparin, tri-sulfated non-anticoagulant heparan sulfate, and non-anticoagulant low molecular weight heparin against SARS-CoV-2 SGP binding to immobilized heparin were 0.056 μM, 0.12 μM, and 26.4 μM, respectively. Finally, unbiased computational ligand docking indicates that heparan sulfate interacts with the GAG-binding motif at the S1/S2 site on each monomer interface in the trimeric SARS-CoV-2 SGP, and at another site (453–459 (YRLFRKS)) when the receptor-binding domain is in an open conformation. The current study serves a foundation to further investigate biological roles of GAGs in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. Furthermore, our findings may provide additional basis for further heparin-based interventions for COVID-19 patients exhibiting thrombotic complications.;
Antiviral Research, 181, 104873; Note : if this item contains full text it may be a preprint, author manuscript, or a Gold OA copy that permits redistribution with a license such as CC BY. The final version is available through the publisher’s platform.
The Linhardt Research Labs.; The Shirley Ann Jackson, Ph.D. Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies (CBIS);
The Linhardt Research Labs Online Collection; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY; Antiviral Research; https://harc.rpi.edu/;