Biology; Chemistry and chemical biology; Chemical and biological engineering; Biomedical engineering
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Oligosaccharide Mapping of Low Molecular Weight Heparins: Structural Differences and their Relationship to Activity, R.J. Linhardt, D. Loganathan, A. Al-Hakim, H.M. Wang, J.M. Walenga, D. Hoppensteadt, J. Fareed, Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 33, 1639-1645 (1990).
Low molecular weight heparins from a variety of commercial sources were examined. These had been prepared by several methods including peroxidative cleavage, nitrous acid cleavage, chemical beta-elimination, enzymatic beta-elimination, and chromatographic fractionation. The molecular weight and polydispersity of these low molecular weight heparins showed greater differences than were observed for typical commercial heparin preparations. Considerable differences were also observed in the antithrombin III mediated anti factor Xa activity, the heparin cofactor II mediated antifactor IIa activity, and the USP activity of these low molecular weight heparins. An oligosaccharide-mapping technique (comparable to the peptide mapping of proteins) was applied to these low molecular weight heparins in an effort to understand the structural features responsible for their activity differences. Heparin lyase from Flavobacterium heparinum was first used to depolymerize the low molecular weight heparin into its constituent oligosaccharides. The oligosaccharides present in the resultant mixture were identified and quantitated by using standard oligosaccharides of defined structure on gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and strong anion exchange high pressure liquid chromatography. Six of the oligosaccharide products have been identified and represent nearly 90 wt % of heparin's mass. Even though all the low molecular weight heparins showed these six oligosaccharide components, their content in each varied greatly, accounting for 20 to over 90% of their mass. The antithrombin III mediated anti factor Xa activities of the low molecular weight heparins correlated only poorly to the concentration of a hexasaccharide containing a portion of heparin's antithrombin III binding site. The heparin cofactor II mediated antifactor IIa activity, however, could not be correlated to these six oligosaccharides of known structure nor to the molecular weight or charge density of these low molecular weight heparins. The low molecular weight heparins prepared by different methods each showed a new distinctive oligosaccharide in their maps. Their isolation and structural characterization, which included two-dimensional NMR and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, indicated that these unusual oligosaccharides result from end-sugar modification during chemical depolymerization. Both gel electrophoresis and high-pressure liquid chromatography mapping techniques showed a greater structural diversity between low molecular weight heparins than had previously been observed between similarly analyzed commercial heparins.;
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 33, 1639-1645; Note : if this item contains full text it may be a preprint, author manuscript, or a Gold OA copy that permits redistribution with a license such as CC BY. The final version is available through the publisher’s platform.
The Linhardt Research Labs.; The Shirley Ann Jackson, Ph.D. Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies (CBIS);
The Linhardt Research Labs Online Collection; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY; https://harc.rpi.edu/;