Biology; Chemistry and chemical biology; Chemical and biological engineering; Biomedical engineering
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Masquerading microbial pathogens: Capsular polysaccharides mimic host-tissue molecules. B. F. Cress, J. A. Englaender, W. He, D. Kasper, R. J. Linhardt, M. A. G. Koffas, FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 38, 660–697, 2014.
The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria portends an impending postantibiotic age, characterized by diminishing efficacy of common antibiotics and routine application of multifaceted, complementary therapeutic approaches to treat bacterial infections, particularly multidrug-resistant organisms. The first line of defense for most bacterial pathogens consists of a physical and immunologic barrier known as the capsule, commonly composed of a viscous layer of carbohydrates that are covalently bound to the cell wall in Gram-positive bacteria or often to lipids of the outer membrane in many Gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial capsular polysaccharides are a diverse class of high molecular weight polysaccharides contributing to virulence of many human pathogens in the gut, respiratory tree, urinary tract, and other host tissues, by hiding cell surface components that might otherwise elicit host immune response. This review highlights capsular polysaccharides that are structurally identical or similar to polysaccharides found in mammalian tissues, including polysialic acid and glycosaminoglycan capsules hyaluronan, heparosan, and chondroitin. Such nonimmunogenic coatings render pathogens insensitive to certain immune responses, effectively increasing residence time in host tissues and enabling pathologically relevant population densities to be reached. Biosynthetic pathways and capsular involvement in immune system evasion are described, providing a basis for potential therapies aimed at supplementing or replacing antibiotic treatment.;
FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 38, 660–697; Note : if this item contains full text it may be a preprint, author manuscript, or a Gold OA copy that permits redistribution with a license such as CC BY. The final version is available through the publisher’s platform.
The Linhardt Research Labs.; The Shirley Ann Jackson, Ph.D. Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies (CBIS);
The Linhardt Research Labs Online Collection; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY; FEMS Microbiology Reviews; https://harc.rpi.edu/;