Identification of Keratan Sulfate Disaccharide Unit at the C-3 position of Glucuronic Acid of Chondroitin Sulfate from Mactra chinensis

Higashi, K.
Takeda, Keita
Mukuno, A.
Okamoto, Y.
Masuko, S.
Linhardt, Robert J.
Toida, T.
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Biology , Chemistry and chemical biology , Chemical and biological engineering , Biomedical engineering
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Identification of Keratan Sulfate Disaccharide Unit at the C-3 position of Glucuronic Acid of Chondroitin Sulfate from Mactra chinensis, K. Higashi, K. Takeda, A. Mukuno, Y. Okamoto, S. Masuko, R. J. Linhardt, T. Toida, Biochemical Journal, 473 4145–4158, 2016.
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate, heparin, heparan sulfate and keratan sulfate (KS) are linear sulfated repeating disaccharide sequences containing hexosamine and uronic acid [or galactose (Gal) in the case of KS]. Among the GAGs, CS shows structural variations, such as sulfation patterns and fucosylation, which are responsible for their physiological functions through CS interaction with CS-binding proteins. Here, we solved the structure of KS-branched CS-E derived from a clam, Mactra chinensis. KS disaccharide [d-GlcNAc6S-(1→3)-β-d-Gal-(1→] was attached to the C-3 position of GlcA, and consecutive KS-branched disaccharide sequences were found in a CS chain. KS-branched polysaccharides clearly exhibited resistance to degradation by chondroitinase ABC or ACII (at low concentrations) compared with typical CS structures. Furthermore, KS-branched polysaccharides stimulated neurite outgrowth of hippocampal neurons. These results strongly suggest that M. chinensis is a rich source of KS-branched CS, and it has important biological activities.
Biochemical Journal, 473 4145–4158
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The Linhardt Research Labs.
The Shirley Ann Jackson, Ph.D. Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies (CBIS)
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