Anticoagulant and antiprotease profiles of a novel natural heparinomimetic mannopentaose phosphate sulfate (PI-88

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Demir, M.
Iqbal, O.
Hoppensteadt, D.A.
Piccolo, P.
Ahmad, S.
Schultz, C.L.
Linhardt, Robert J.
Fareed, J.
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Biology , Chemistry and chemical biology , Chemical and biological engineering , Biomedical engineering
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Heparinomimetic mannopentaose phosphate sulfate (PI-88) (Progen Industries Ltd. Brisbane, Australia), currently developed as an anticoagulant and antiproliferative agent, mainly is composed of a pentomannan. However, tetrasaccharide and disaccharide components are also present. The molecular profile and the anticoagulant potency of PI-88 are investigated in this study. Gel permeation chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses were carried out to determine the molecular profile and separation of components of PI-88, respectively. Potentiation of antithrombin III (ATIII) and heparin cofactor-II (HC-11) activity were measured using chromogenic substrate assay. In order to determine anticoagulant and antiprcatease effects of PI-88, various global anticoagulant tests, such as the prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), Hep-test@ (Haemachem Inc., St. Louis), ecarin clotting time (ECT), activated clotting time (ACT), and thromboelastography (TEG) were used. Anti-Xa and anti-IIa activities also were measured. The effect of PI-88 on the release of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) was performed in nonhuman primates who received PI-88 and in endothelial cell culture systems. The relative susceptibility of PI-88 to heparinase 1, protamine sulfate (PS), and platelet factor 4 (PF4) also was evaluated. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of PI-88 showed that its average molecular weight is approximately 2300 Da. Separation and gradient electrophoretic . patterns of PI-88 showed that it is composed of five different fractions. This agent activates HC-II through inhibiting the thrombin generation but not inhibiting ATIII. Although PI-88 produced a concentration-dependent prolongation of all of the clotting tests, ECT gave the best correlation in the dose-response curve (ECT, r2 = 0.94; TT, r2 = 0.84; APTT, r2 = 0.69). Heparinomimetic mannopentaose phosphate sulfate (PI-88) exhibited marked inhibition of FIIa, but not of FXa. Heparinase I failed to produce significant neutralization of PI-88 in all the assays used, whereas PS and PF4 partially neutralized the effects of this compound. Heparinomimetic mannopentaose phosphate sulfate (PI-88) produced fivefold increase in the TFPI levels at 15 minutes after intravenous (IV) injection to primates. The incubation of PI-88 in endothelial cell culture system also showed a strong effect on TFPI release. These results suggest that PI-88 exhibited strong antithrombotic and anticoagulant activity in addition to its known antiproliferative properties. Because of the molecular characteristics and the dual nature of the pharmacokgic action of PI-88., this agent represents an attractive pharmacotogic agent for the control of thrombotic and proliflerative disorders.
Clinical Applications in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, 7, 131-140
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Anticoagulant and antiprotease profiles of a novel natural heparinomimetic mannopentaose phosphate sulfate (PI-88), M. Demir, O. Iqbal, D.A. Hoppensteadt, P. Piccolo, S. Ahmad, C.L. Schultz, R.J. Linhardt, J. Fareed, Clinical Applications in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, 7, 131-140, 2001.
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