Purification, Characterization and Specificity of Chondroitin Lyases and Glucuronidase from Flavobacterium heparinum

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Gu, K.
Linhardt, Robert J.
Laliberte, M.
Gu, K.
Zimmerman, J.
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Biology , Chemistry and chemical biology , Chemical and biological engineering , Biomedical engineering
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The chondroitin lyases from Flavobacterium heparinum (Cytophaga heparinia) have been widely used in depolymerization of glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycan chondroitin sulphates. Oligosaccharide products derived from chondroitin sulphate can be further degraded by glycuronidases and sulphatases obtained from the same organism. There has been no reported purification of these enzymes to homogeneity nor is there any information on their physical and kinetic characteristics. The absence of pure enzymes has resulted in a lack of understanding of the optimal conditions for their catalytic activity and their substrate specificity. This has limited the use of these enzymes as reagents for preparation of oligosaccharides for structure and activity studies. Reproducible schemes to purify a chondroitin AC lyase, a glycuronidase and chondroitin B lyase from Flavobacterium heparinum to apparent homogeneity are described. Chondroitin AC lyase (chondroitinase AC, EC, glycuronidase [chondro-(1-->3)-glycuronidase, no EC number] and chondroitin B lyase (chondroitinase B, no EC number) have M(r) values (assessed by SDS/PAGE) of 74,000, 41,800 and 55,200 respectively, and isoelectric points (determined by isoelectric focusing) of 8.85, 9.28 and 9.05 respectively. Chondroitin lyase AC and B contain pyroglutamic acid at their N-termini precluding their analysis by Edman degradation. Deblocking with pyroglutamate aminopeptidase facilitated the determination of their N-terminal sequences. The kinetic properties of these enzymes have been determined as well as the optimum conditions for their catalytic activity. The specificity of the glycouronidase, determined using 17 different disaccharide substrates, shows that it only acts on unsulphated or 6-O-sulphated 1-->3 linkages. The chondroitin lyases are both endolytic enzymes, and oligosaccharide mapping shows their expected specificity towards the chondroitin and dermatan sulphate polymers.
Biochemical Journal, 311, 569-577
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Purification, Characterization and Specificity of Chondroitin Lyases and Glucuronidase from Flavobacterium heparinum K. Gu, R.J. Linhardt, M. Laliberte, K. Gu, J. Zimmerman, Biochemical Journal, 311, 569-577, 1995.
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