Breast cyst fluid heparan sulfate is distinctively n-sulfated depending on apocrine or flattened type

Mannello, F.
Maccari, F.
Ligi, D.
Canale, M.
Gatto, F.
Linhardt, R.
Galeotti, F.
Volpi, N.
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Biology , Chemistry and chemical biology , Chemical and biological engineering , Biomedical engineering
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Breast cyst fluid heparan sulfate is distinctively n-sulfated depending on apocrine or flattened type, F. Mannello, F. Maccari, D. Ligi, M. Canale, F. Gatto, R. Linhardt, F. Galeotti, N. Volpi, Cell Biochemistry and Function, 33, 128–133, 2015.
Breast cyst fluid (BCF) contained in gross cists is involved with its many biomolecules in different stages of breast cystic development. Type I apocrine and type II flattened cysts are classified based on biochemical, morphological and hormonal differences, and their different patterns of growth factors and active biocompounds may require different regulation. In a previous paper, hyaluronic acid in a very low content and chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate were identified and characterized in BCF. In this new study, various apocrine and flattened BCFs were analyzed for HS concentration and disaccharide pattern. Apocrine HS was found specifically constituted of N-acetyl groups contrary to flattened HS richer in N-sulphate disaccharides with an overall N-acetylated/N-sulphated ratio significantly increased in apocrine compared with flattened (13.5 vs 3.7). Related to this different structural features, the charge density significantly decreased (~-30%) in apocrine versus flattened BCFs. Finally, no significant differences were observed for HS amount (~0.9-1.3 µg ml(-1) ) between the two BCF types even if a greater content was determined for flattened samples. The specifically N-sulphated sequences in flattened BCF HS can exert biologic capacity by regulating growth factors activity. On the other hand, we cannot exclude a peculiar regulation of the activity of biomolecules in apocrine BCF by HS richer in N-acetylated disaccharides. In fact, the different patterns of growth factors and active biocompounds in the two types of cysts may require different regulation by specific sequences in the HS backbone possessing specific structural characteristics and distinctive chemical groups.
Cell Biochemistry and Function, 33, 128–133
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