Soluble klotho and heparin modulate the pathologic cardiac actions of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease

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Yanucil, C.
Kentrup, D.
Campos, I.
Czaya, B.
Heitman, K.
Westbrook, D.
Osis, G.
Grabner, A.
Wende, A.R.
Vallejo, J.
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Biology , Chemistry and chemical biology , Chemical and biological engineering , Biomedical engineering
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Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 is a phosphate-regulating hormone that is elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease and associated with cardiovascular mortality. Experimental studies showed that elevated FGF23 levels induce cardiac hypertrophy by targeting cardiac myocytes via FGF receptor isoform 4 (FGFR4). A recent structural analysis revealed that the complex of FGF23 and FGFR1, the physiologic FGF23 receptor in the kidney, includes soluble α-klotho (klotho) and heparin, which both act as co-factors for FGF23/FGFR1 signaling. Here, we investigated whether soluble klotho, a circulating protein with cardio-protective properties, and heparin, a factor that is routinely infused into patients with kidney failure during the hemodialysis procedure, regulate FGF23/FGFR4 signaling and effects in cardiac myocytes. We developed a plate-based binding assay to quantify affinities of specific FGF23/FGFR interactions and found that soluble klotho and heparin mediate FGF23 binding to distinct FGFR isoforms. Heparin specifically mediated FGF23 binding to FGFR4 and increased FGF23 stimulatory effects on hypertrophic growth and contractility in isolated cardiac myocytes. When repetitively injected into two different mouse models with elevated serum FGF23 levels, heparin aggravated cardiac hypertrophy. We also developed a novel procedure for the synthesis and purification of recombinant soluble klotho, which showed anti-hypertrophic effects in FGF23-treated cardiac myocytes. Thus, soluble klotho and heparin act as independent FGF23 co-receptors with opposite effects on the pathologic actions of FGF23, with soluble klotho reducing and heparin increasing FGF23-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Hence, whether heparin injections during hemodialysis in patients with extremely high serum FGF23 levels contribute to their high rates of cardiovascular events and mortality remains to be studied.
Kidney International, in press
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Soluble klotho and heparin modulate the pathologic cardiac actions of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease, C. Yanucil, D. Kentrup, I. Campos, B. Czaya, K. Heitman, D. Westbrook, G. Osis, A. Grabner, A. R. Wende, J. Vallejo, M. Wacker, J. Alberto Navarro-Garcia, G. Ruiz-Hurtado, F. Zhang, Y. Song, R. J. Linhardt, K. White, M. Kapiloff, C. Faul, Kidney International, in press, 2022.
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