Elucidating the Unusual Reaction Kinetics of D-Glucuronyl C5-Epimerase

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Vaidyanathan, Deepika
Paskaleva, Elena
Vargason, Troy
Ke, Xia
Mccallum, Scott A.
Linhardt, Robert J.
Dordick, Jonathan S.
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Biology , Chemistry and chemical biology , Chemical and biological engineering , Biomedical engineering
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The chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparin, through a multienzyme process, represents a critical challenge in providing a safe and effective substitute for this animal-sourced anticoagulant drug. D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase (C5-epi) is an enzyme acting on a heparin precursor, N-sulfoheparosan, catalyzing the reversible epimerization of D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) to L-iduronic acid (IdoA). The absence of reliable assays for C5-epi has limited elucidation of the enzymatic reaction and kinetic mechanisms. Real time and offline assays are described that rely on 1D 1H NMR to study the activity of C5-epi. Apparent steady-state kinetic parameters for both the forward and the pseudo-reverse reactions of C5-epi are determined for the first time using polysaccharide substrates directly relevant to the chemoenzymatic synthesis and biosynthesis of heparin. The forward reaction shows unusual sigmoidal kinetic behavior, and the pseudo-reverse reaction displays nonsaturating kinetic behavior. The atypical sigmoidal behavior of the forward reaction was probed using a range of buffer additives. Surprisingly, the addition of 25 mM each of CaCl2 and MgCl2 resulted in a forward reaction exhibiting more conventional Michaelis–Menten kinetics. The addition of 2-O-sulfotransferase, the next enzyme involved in heparin synthesis, in the absence of 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate, also resulted in C5-epi exhibiting a more conventional Michaelis–Menten kinetic behavior in the forward reaction accompanied by a significant increase in apparent Vmax. This study provides critical information for understanding the reaction kinetics of C5-epi, which may result in improved methods for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of bioengineered heparin.
Glycobiology, 30, 847–858
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Elucidating the Unusual Reaction Kinetics of D-Glucuronyl C5-Epimerase, D. Vaidyanathan, E. Paskaleva, T. Vargason, X. Ke, S. McCallum, R. J. Linhardt, J. S. Dordick, Glycobiology, 30, 847–858, 2020.
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