Circulating heparin oligosaccharides rapidly target the hippocampus in sepsis potentially impacting cognitive functions

Zhang, Xing
Han, Xiaorui
Xia, Ke
Xu, Yongmei
Yang, Yimu
Oshima, Kaori
Haeger, Sarah M.
Perez, Mario J.
McMurtry, Sarah A.
Hippensteel, Joseph A.
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Biology , Chemistry and chemical biology , Chemical and biological engineering , Biomedical engineering
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Circulating heparin oligosaccharides rapidly target the hippocampus in sepsis potentially impacting cognitive functions, X. Zhang, X. Han, K. Xia, Y. Xu, Y. Yang, K. Oshima, S. M. Haeger, M. J. Perez, S. A. McMurtry, J. A. Hippensteel, J. A. Ford P. S. Herson, J. Liu, E. P. Schmidt, R. J. Linhardt, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 116, 9208–9213, 2019.
Sepsis induces heparanase-mediated degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx, a heparan sulfate-enriched endovascular layer critical to vascular homeostasis, releasing highly sulfated domains of heparan sulfate into the circulation. These domains are oligosaccharides rich in heparin-like trisulfated disaccharide repeating units. Using a chemoenzymatic approach, an undecasaccharide containing a uniformly 13C-labeled internal 2-sulfoiduronic acid residue was synthesized on a p-nitrophenylglucuronide acceptor. Selective periodate cleavage afforded a heparin nonasaccharide having a natural structure. This 13C-labeled nonasaccharide was intravenously administered to septic (induced by cecal ligation and puncture, a model of polymicrobial peritonitis-induced sepsis) and nonseptic (sham) mice. Selected tissues and biological fluids from the mice were harvested at various time points over 4 hours, and the 13C-labeled nonasaccharide was recovered and digested with heparin lyases. The resulting 13C-labeled trisulfated disaccharide was quantified, without interference from endogenous mouse heparan sulfate/heparin, using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry with sensitive and selective multiple reaction monitoring. The 13C-labeled heparin nonasaccharide appeared immediately in the blood and was rapidly cleared through the urine. Plasma nonasaccharide clearance was only slightly prolonged in septic mice (t1/2 ∼ 90 minutes). In septic mice, the nonasaccharide penetrated into the hippocampus but not the cortex of the brain; no hippocampal or cortical brain penetration occurred in sham mice. The results of this study suggest that circulating heparan sulfates are rapidly cleared from the plasma during sepsis and selectively penetrate the hippocampus, where they may have functional consequences.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 116, 9208–9213
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The Linhardt Research Labs.
The Shirley Ann Jackson, Ph.D. Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies (CBIS)
The Linhardt Research Labs Online Collection
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America