Conformational Changes and Anticoagulant Activity of ChondroitinSulfate Following its O-Sulfonation

Maruyama, T.
Toida, T.
Imanari, T.
Yu, G.
Linhardt, Robert J.
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Biology , Chemistry and chemical biology , Chemical and biological engineering , Biomedical engineering
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Conformational Changes and Anticoagulant Activity of ChondroitinSulfate Following its O-Sulfonation, T. Maruyama, T. Toida, T.Imanari, G. Yu, R.J. Linhardt, Carbohydrate Research, 306,35-43, 1998.
Chondroitin sulfate from bovine tracheal cartilage, with the basic structure (4-O-sulfo-D-GalpNAc beta-1-->4-D-GlcpA)n, was chemically modified by O-sulfonation. Depending on the reaction conditions, the products showed a different degree of O-sulfonation. A fully O-sulfonated chondroitin sulfate, having no free hydroxyl groups, and a sulfo ester group:disaccharide unit ratio of 4.0 was prepared. This chondroitin sulfate derivative was shown by 1H NMR spectroscopy to have a uronate residue with an altered conformation. Usually, the uronate residue in chondroitin sulfate resides in the 4C1 form. Fully O-sulfonated chondroitin sulfate had an uronate residue in the 1C4 form at 30 degrees C, similar to the preferred conformation of the 2-O-sulfo-iduronate residue most commonly found in heparin. The 2S0 form of the uronate residue was also found in fully O-sulfonated chondroitin sulfate at 60 degrees C. The anti-factor IIa activity of fully O-sulfonated chondroitin sulfate was 40 units/mg. This value is similar to the activities reported for various low-molecular-weight heparins, and substantially higher than those previously reported for partially O-sulfonated chondroitin sulfates having an average sulfate group/disaccharide unit of 2.5 to 3.3. The anti-factor Xa activity of the fully O-sulfonated chondroitin sulfate was 12 units/mg. This value is considerably lower than the activities reported for various low-molecular-weight heparins, consistent with the critical importance of an antithrombin III pentasaccharide binding site for anti-factor Xa activity. These findings suggest that the conformational change of glucuronic acid residue in chondroitin sulfate resulting from its full O-sulfonation can result in enhanced anticoagulant activity, particularly as measured by anti-factor IIa assay.
Carbohydrate Research, 306, 35-43
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