Changes in cultured endothelial cell glycosaminoglycans under hyperglycemic conditions and the effect of insulin and heparin

Authors
Han, Juying
Zhang, Fuming
Xie, Jin
Linhardt, Robert J.
Hiebert, Linda M.
ORCID
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2219-5833
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Issue Date
2009-08-20
Keywords
Biology , Chemistry and chemical biology , Chemical and biological engineering , Biomedical engineering
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Terms of Use
Attribution 3.0 United States
CC BY : this license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, so long as attribution is given to the creator. The license allows for commercial use. Credit must be given to the authors and the original work must be properly cited.
Full Citation
Changes in cultured endothelial cell glycosaminoglycans under hyperglycemic conditions and the effect of insulin and heparin, J. Han, F. Zhang, J. Xie, R. J. Linhardt and L. M. Hiebert, Cardiovascular Diabetology, 8, 46-58, 2009.
Abstract
Background: Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) contain glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains made primarily of heparan sulfate (HS). Hyperglycemia in diabetes leads to endothelial injury and nephropathy, retinopathy and atherosclerosis. Decreased HSPG may contribute to diabetic endothelial injury. Decreased tissue HS in diabetes has been reported, however, endothelial HS changes are poorly studied. Objective: To determine total GAGs, including HS, in endothelium under hyperglycemic conditions and the protective effect of insulin and heparin. Methods: Confluent primary porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAECs) were divided into control, glucose (30 mM), insulin (0.01 unit/ml) and glucose plus insulin treatment groups for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Additionally, PAECs were treated with glucose, heparin (0.5 μ g/ml) and glucose plus heparin for 72 hours. GAGs were isolated from cells and medium. GAG concentrations were determined by the carbazole assay and agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: GAGs were significantly increased only in control and glucose plus insulin groups at 72 versus 24 hours. Glucose decreased cell GAGs and increased medium GAGs, and insulin alone decreased cell GAGs at all times compared to control. In the glucose plus insulin group, cell GAGs were less than control at 24 hours, and greater than glucose or insulin alone at 48 and 72 hours while GAGs in medium were greater than control at all times and glucose at 72 hours. Heparin increased GAGs in glucose treated cells and medium.Conclusion: High glucose and insulin alone reduces endothelial GAGs. In hyperglycemic conditions, heparin or insulin preserves GAGs which may protect cells from injury. Insulin is an effective diabetic therapy since it not only lowers blood glucose, but also protects endothelium.
Description
Cardiovascular Diabetology, 8, 46-58
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Department
The Linhardt Research Labs.
The Shirley Ann Jackson, Ph.D. Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies (CBIS)
Publisher
Springer Nature
Relationships
The Linhardt Research Labs Online Collection
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY
Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://harc.rpi.edu/
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A full text version is available in DSpace@RPI
Open Access
A full text version is available in DSpace@RPI