Antithrombin III Regulates Complement Activity

Weiler, J.M.
Linhardt, Robert J.
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Biology , Chemistry and chemical biology , Chemical and biological engineering , Biomedical engineering
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Antithrombin III Regulates Complement Activity, J.M. Weiler, R.J. Linhardt, Journal of Immunology, 146, 3889-3894 (1991).
Heparin, a polyion, exerts its main activity to inhibit coagulation through a serine protease inhibitor, antithrombin III. Previous studies have clearly shown that heparin in the absence of antithrombin III also has the capacity to regulate C activity. The present studies examined the ability of purified human antithrombin III to regulate classical and alternative pathways of C, alone and in the presence of heparin. Antithrombin III alone inhibited generation of both pathways in a dose-related manner; antithrombin III at 8 micrograms/10(7) cellular intermediates inhibited generation of the classical and alternative pathway convertases by 60 and 42%, respectively. Antithrombin III and heparin augmented each other's capacity to inhibit generation of both convertases in a dose-related manner. Antithrombin III did not appear to inhibit on the basis of charge because it is only slightly anionic (isoelectric pH value, 5.0); instead, antithrombin III may have acted as a serine protease inhibitor of the proteolytic enzymes of the C cascades. Antithrombin III acted only to inhibit formation of the alternative pathway convertase but had no activity on terminal lysis by this pathway; similarly, antithrombin III inhibited preformed EAC1,4b,2a,3b but had no activity on classical pathway cellular intermediates containing additional components. Finally, antithrombin III inhibited consumption of factor B hemolytic activity in a reaction mixture that also contained factor D and C3b, suggesting that factor D activity was also inhibited. These studies demonstrate the capacity of antithrombin III to regulate C and suggest that, in concert with heparin, antithrombin III may play an important role in the regulation of C in vivo.
Journal of Immunology, 146, 3889-3894
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