Novel Cellulose – Halloysite Hemostatic Nanocomposite Fibers with a Dramatic Reduction in Human Plasma Coagulation Time

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Udangawa, Ranodhi N.
Mikael, Paiyz Esmat
Mancinelli, Chiara
Chapman, Caitlyn
Willard, Charles F.
Simmons, Trevor John
Linhardt, Robert J.
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Biology , Chemistry and chemical biology , Chemical and biological engineering , Biomedical engineering
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High-performance cellulose–halloysite hemostatic nanocomposite fibers (CHNFs) are fabricated using a one-step wet–wet electrospinning process and evaluated for human plasma coagulation by activated partial thromboplastin time. These novel biocompatible CHNFs exhibit 2.4 times faster plasma coagulation time compared with the industry gold standard QuikClot Combat Gauze (QCG). The CHNFs have superior antileaching property of clay with 3 times higher post-wetting clotting activity compared to QCG. The CHNFs also coagulate whole blood 1.3 times faster than the QCG and retain twice the clotting performance after washing. Halloysite clay is also more effective in plasma coagulation than commercial kaolin clay. The physical and thermal properties of the CHNFs were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. CHNFs show a 7-fold greater clay loading than QCG and their small average diameter of 450 ± 260 nm affords a greater specific surface area (33.6 m2 g–1) compared with the larger average diameter of 12.6 ± 0.9 μm for QCG with a specific surface area of 1.6 m2 g–1. The CHNFs were shown to be noncytotoxic and human primary fibroblasts proliferated on the composite material. The drastic reduction in coagulation time makes this novel nanocomposite a potential lifesaving material for victims of rapid blood loss such as military personnel and patients undergoing major surgical procedures or to aid in the treatment of unexpected bleeding episodes of patients suffering from hereditary blood clotting disorders. Since a person can die within minutes of heavy bleeding, every second counts for stopping traumatic hemorrhaging.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 11, 15447−15456
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Novel Cellulose – Halloysite Hemostatic Nanocomposite Fibers with a Dramatic Reduction in Human Plasma Coagulation Time, R. Udangawa, P. Mikael, C. Mancinelli, C. Chapman, C. Willard, T.J. Simmons, R. J. Linhardt, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 11, 15447−15456, 2019.
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